Healing Breast Cancer with IgG Allergy Testing
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The symptoms of food intolerance are less bothersome. People often confuse the two, because food intolerance also shows some of the same signs and symptoms as food allergy, such as nausea, vomiting, cramping, and diarrhea. While there is no cure, some children outgrow their food allergy as they get older.
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Food allergy symptoms usually develop within a few minutes to an hour after eating the offending food. While 3. Food allergies cause 30, cases of anaphylaxis, 2, hospitalizations, and deaths annually. Treatment consists of either immunotherapy desensitization or avoidance, in which the allergic person avoids all forms of contact with the food to which he or she is allergic.
It is well reported that a few specific foods cause the majority of the food reactions. The most common triggers of a food reaction in adults include peanuts, fish, shellfish, tree nuts e. Problematic foods for children are eggs, milk especially in infants and young children , and peanuts.
Chocolate, long thought by some parents to cause food allergies in children, rarely triggers a food allergy. In a true food allergy, the immune system mistakenly identifies a specific food or an additive in food as a harmful substance.
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The immune system cells then release certain antibodies known as immunoglobulin E IgE to fight the allergens originating from the problematic food or food substance. The next time the smallest amount of that food is eaten, the IgE antibodies that circulate in the blood sense it and signal the immune system mast cells to release histamine and other cytokines into the bloodstream. These chemicals are responsible for a range of allergic signs and symptoms.
Histamine contributes to inflammation and causes swelling on the skin and itching.
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It is responsible for the hives that appear on the skin when the patient is tested for allergy. These hives show the presence of IgE and are one of the best indications of allergy. Risk factors that increase the chance of food allergies include age young children ; history of eczema it is reported that about one in three people with atopic dermatitis or eczema also have a food allergy ; and family history of other types of allergies, including hay fever, asthma, and pollen.
In many people who have hay fever, fresh fruits and vegetables and certain nuts and spices can trigger an allergic reaction that causes the mouth to tingle or itch. In some people, pollen-food allergy symptoms can cause swelling of the throat or even anaphylaxis. This kind of allergy is an example of cross-reactivity. It is believed that certain proteins in fruits and vegetables cause the reaction because they are similar to those allergy-causing proteins found in certain pollens.
For example, if someone is allergic to ragweed or birch pollen, he or she may also react to melons. Cooking fruits and vegetables can help to avoid these reactions. Most cooked fruits and vegetables do not cause cross-reactive oral allergy symptoms. Other risk factors for severe anaphylaxis are agents or drugs that cause increased intestinal permeability--such as alcohol and aspirin, beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors--and exercise.
Histamines, released by the immune system during an allergic reaction, have been shown to trigger migraines in some people. Severe food allergic reaction can cause life-threatening symptoms, and emergency treatment is critical. Untreated, anaphylaxis can cause a coma or death. Serious reactions are constriction and tightening of airways; a swollen throat or a lump in throat that makes it difficult to breathe; and shock with a severe drop in blood pressure, rapid pulse and dizziness, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness.
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In some people, exercise can trigger an allergic reaction to a food. An exercise-induced food allergy may cause itching and lightheadedness. In serious cases, it can also cause reactions such as hives or anaphylaxis. Not eating and avoiding a certain food for a couple of hours before exercise may help prevent this problem.
Mild reactions to food are not critical and life-threatening but also require immediate medical attention. Some of these reactions are stomach cramps, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash and itching especially hives , coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, swelling lips, mouth, tongue, throat , nasal congestion, and severe drop in blood pressure.
If after eating food a patient has digestive symptoms, chances are this is not a true food allergy but a food intolerance.
Depending on the type of food intolerance, the patient may be able to eat small amounts of problem foods without a reaction. By contrast, if a patient has a true food allergy, even a tiny amount of food may trigger an allergic reaction. Sometimes, it may be difficult to distinguish food intolerance from food allergy due to the fact that some people are sensitive to a substance or ingredient used in the preparation of the food and not to the food itself.
In the following cases, there is a possibility that symptoms may be mistaken for those of a true food allergy. While celiac disease is sometimes referred to as a gluten allergy , it is not a true food allergy. Like a food allergy, it does involve an immune system response, but it is a unique immune system reaction that is more complex than a simple food allergy. Eating gluten, a protein found in bread, pasta, cookies, and many other foods containing wheat, barley, or rye, triggers this chronic digestive condition. In people with celiac disease, eating foods containing gluten will initiate an immune reaction that causes damage to the surface of the small intestine and an inability to absorb certain nutrients.
Symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bloating. In some cases, celiac disease causes malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies. Some patients may not have adequate amounts of certain enzymes needed to digest specific foods. It can present as either as a complete deficiency in instances in which the serum level of a IgG subclass are below detection or as a relative deficiency in which the IgG subclass levels are below normal range for age.
IgG2 subclass deficiency is most common in children, whereas the IgG3 subclass deficiency has the highest prevalence in adults. A consequence of this disorder is a defect of humoral immunity, although it does not necessarily lead to clinical manifestations. Children with IgG subclass deficiency present most commonly with recurrent ear infections, sometimes as early as the second year of life. Severe otitis media can lead to hearing loss. In rare cases, patients suffer from recurrent episodes of meningitis or bacterial sepsis.
Some patients develop autoimmune disorders, such as asthma. Overall, the morbidity of patients suffering from selective IgG subclass deficiencies is not as severe as that of patients suffering from combined immunoglobulin deficiencies affecting all major immunoglobulin classes, as seen in ADA deficiency or X-linked agammaglobulinemia. It is important to note that many patients experience no symptoms, whereas others develop symptoms later in life.
Patients with IgG1 and IgG3 deficiency commonly present with infections of the lower airways, which can progress to chronic lung disease. Selective IgG1 deficiency is very rare, as it is usually associated with deficiency of either IgG3, or other immunoglobulin classes, such as in common variable immunodeficiency. Isolated IgG1 deficiency has been reported in chronic fatigue syndrome. As IgG1 is the most abundant IgG subclass, its deficiency often results in hypogammaglobulinemia. Conversely, IgG2 and IgG4 deficiencies manifest in the form of otitis media and sinusitis.
IgG2 deficiency is the most common type of IgG subclass deficiency, either as an isolated finding or together with IgG4 deficiency. IgG2 deficiency often results in infectious complications, such as bronchiectasis, bronchopneumonia, bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and asthma. It has also been associated with ataxia teleangiectasia and systemic lupus erythematosus SLE. Children with SLE and IgG2 and IgG4 deficiency may present with cardiac tamponade, instead of the more common nephropathy and arthritis.
Tonsil and lymph nodes are present but small. A thymic shadow on Chest X-ray excludes a T-lymphocyte deficiency. Sinus films may show maxillary or ethmoid sinusitis, even in small infants. These patients usually have low levels of all three major immunoglobulins. To date, there is no molecular test for THI. Antibody titers to tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis A and B, Haemophilus influenzae , and pneumococcal vaccine antigens are variable. Under these circumstances a booster immunization is recommended followed by repeat titers after one month.
Very low numbers of B-lymphocytes suggest X-linked agammaglobulinemia. As noted, allergy tests including IgE levels may be abnormal. Repeated respiratory infections may be associated with chronic sinusitis as identified by sinus film Waters view or limited CT scan.
Repeat immunoglobulin levels are done at mo intervals to determine recovery. Infants in Group 1 require no treatment; we repeat levels every 12 mo, sooner if infections begin to occur to document their recovery. In symptomatic patients, a conservative approach is initially warranted, such as removing the infant from day care, prompt treatment of respiratory infections, and occasionally prophylactic antibiotic therapy, particularly in the winter during respiratory infection season.
Some THI patients require this regimen for several years. IVIG is then stopped and immunoglobulin levels and antibody responses are retested 3 mo later. Doctors at this Author's hospital recommend discontinuing IVIG in the late spring or summer, not during respiratory infection season. By definition, all of these patients eventually recover. Most patients recover by age 2 yr, but low IgG levels may persist in some patients until age 5 and occasionally beyond that. Other patients will develop an IgG subclass deficiency, while others with poor antibody responses may normalize their IgG levels, but have persistent impaired polysaccharide responsiveness.
In the Whalen et al. They also emphasize that the diagnosis of THI is usually made in retrospective, uncertain until the patient recovers. No long-term sequelae have been identified. Schur et al.